If you want to transfer funds from a Traditional IRA to a Roth, you can make a Traditional to Roth conversion. A conversion is treated similarly to a distribution from your Traditional IRA. You will pay income taxes on the converted amount at your marginal income tax rate for the year. That means it counts as extra income to you from the government’s perspective, and you will be taxed as if you earned more in the tax year of your conversion. With that in mind, it is usually best to convert in years where you expect to earn less than normal - for instance if you were taking a sabbatical from work or extended unpaid maternity leave. Because you are moving from one type of IRA to another, your conversion will not trigger the 10% early distribution penalty.